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Treaty with the Choctaws, 1803

On August 31, 1803, the fourth treaty was signed. The Treaty of Hoe Buckintoopa4 ceded 853,760 acres to the United States in exchange for the clearing of a Choctaw debt to Panton, Leslie, and Company, a trading company. As additional compensation, each of the two chiefs who signed the treaty received 15 pieces of strouds, 3 rifles, 150 blankets, 150 pounds of powder, 250 rounds of lead, 1 bridle, 1 man's saddle, and 1 black silk handkerchief. The same persuasive technique-the clearing of Choctaw debts in exchange for Indian land-was used repeatedly by owners of U.S. and foreign trading companies.5 It was used even thirty and forty years after 1830 to defraud the Choctaw of land granted to them in articles 14 and 19 of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek.


To whom these presents shall come,

KNOW YE , that the undersigned, commissioners plenipotentiary of the United States of America, of the one part, and of the whole Choctaw nation of the other part, being duly authorised by the President of the United States, and by the chiefs and headmen of the said nation, do hereby establish in conformity to the convention of Fort Confederation, for the line of demarcation recognized in the said convention, the following metes and bounds, viz.: Beginning in the channel of the Hatchee Comesa, or Wax river, at the point where the line of limits, between the United States and Spain crosseth the same, thence up the channel of said river to the confluence of Chickasaw-Hay and Buck-hatannee rivers, thence up the channel of the Buckhatannee to Bogue Hooma or Red creek, thence up the said creek to a Pine tree standing on the left bank of the same, and blazed on two of its sides, about twelve links southwest of an old trading path, leading from the town of Mobile to the Hewanee towns, much worn, but not in use at the present time:--From this tree we find the following bearings and distances, viz.: south fifty four degrees thirty minutes, west, one chain, one link a black gum, north thirty nine degrees east one chain seventy five links to a water oak; thence with the old British line of partition in its various inflections, to a mulberry post, planted on the right bank of the main branch of Sintee Bogue or Snake creek, where it makes a sharp turn to the south east, a large broken top Cypress-tree standing near the opposite bank of the creek, which is about three poles wide, thence down the said creek to the Tombigby river, thence down the Tombigby and Mobile rivers, to the above mention line of limits between the United States and Spain, and with the same to the point of beginning: we, the said commissioners plenipotentiary, do ratify and confirm the said line of demarcation, and do recognize and acknowledge the same to be the boundary which shall separate and distinguish the land ceded to the United States, between the Tombigby, Mobile and Pascagola rivers, from that which has not been ceded by the said Choctaw nation.

We the commissioners of the Choctaw nation duly appointed and the chiefs of the said nation who reside on the Tombigby river, next to Sintee Bogue, do acknowledge to have received from the United States of America, by the hands of Brigadier General James Wilkinson, as a consideration on full for the confirmation of the above concession, the following articles, viz.: fifteen pieces of strouds, three rifles, one hundred and fifty blankets, two hundred and fifty pounds of powder, two hundred and fifty pounds of lead, one bridle, one man's saddle, and one black silk handkerchief.